The elaboration of hormones other than gastrin, or an altered amine metabolism, is suggested in those patients who manifest facial flushing and diarrhea associated with non-beta islet cell tumors of the pancreas with or without coexisting gastric hypersecretion, but in the absence of hyper insulinism. The reported occurrence of Cushing's syndrome associated with islet cell carcinoma further suggests the potential capability of the islet cells for production of multiple substances which are biologically active.1,2
Since 1962, we have been examining the blood and urine from patients having the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome for evidence of humoral agents other than gastrin. Elevated blood and urine histamine levels were found on at least one occasion in all three patients examined; elevation of blood serotonin was found in two of five patients examined; and mild elevations of quantitative urine 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid (5HIAA) was found on at least one occasion in four of five
Block MA, Kelly AR, Horn RC. Elevation of Multiple Humoral Substances in Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. Arch Surg. 1969;98(6):734–737. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1969.01340120082012
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