Acute arterial hemorrhage produces dramatic alterations in the cardiovascular dynamics of the body. One of the homeokinetic responses of the body to such a physiological insult is the attempted restoration of intravascular volume. The fluid of the gastrointestinal tract is considered to be a reservoir of available water.1
Extracellular fluid (ECF) consists of four main subdivisions: (1) plasma; (2) interstitial-lymph fluid; (3) dense connective tissue, cartilage, and bone; and (4) transcellular fluid. Transcellular fluid is designated as consisting of a variety of extracellular fluid collections which are not simple transudates but have the common property of being formed by the active transport of cell membranes.2 Gastrointestinal water is the largest subdivision of transcellular water. It comprises 1.4% and 3% of total body water in the human and dog, respectively.3,4 This represents a significant volume of water that might be readily accessible to body needs, if it could
Hankes GH, Nelson AW, Swan H. The Effect of Hemorrhage on Water and Electrolyte Flux in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Dog. Arch Surg. 1969;99(1):33–39. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1969.01340130035007
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