Congenital abnormalities of the anus and rectum occur approximately once in every 5,000 births. The first successfully treated patient of anorectal malformation dates back to the seventh century. Uniformly good results continue to elude the surgeon in spite of more than a century of observation, application of the knowledge derived from embryology and anatomy, use of various operative procedures, and a written discussion probably including more essays than the literature on any other congenital gastrointestinal anomaly. Several critical reviews of large series of cases have been reported by Ladd and Gross,1 Browne,2 Bill and Johnson,3 Brayton and Norris,4 Gough,5 Santulli,6 Stephens,7 and Kiesewetter et al.8-10
The immediate results of operations for the correction of malformations of the rectum have improved progressively during the past 30 years. Statistics regarding the longterm outcome of surgery for imperforate anus were not so encouraging. The long-term functional
Taneja OP, Sharma MM, Mukerji AC, Taneja S. Management of Congenital Anorectal Malformations in India. Arch Surg. 1970;100(1):47–54. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1970.01340190049011
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