In 1866, Gretsel described a syndrome consisting of primary splenomegaly, secondary anemia, and chronicity. Griessinger termed this splenic anemia.1
In 1894, Banti isolated his syndrome from this broad entity.1 Banti defined three clinical features: (1) a period lasting from three to five years and characterized by splenomegaly and anemia; (2) a short period characterized by hepatomegaly and oliguria; and (3) a final period lasting one to two years and characterized by ascites and a small liver. He also noted that the syndrome was frequently associated with hemorrhages from the mouth and bowel, an icteric skin hue (without true icterus), and a secondary anemia distinguished by leukopenia and relative lymphocytosis.
Pathologically, Banti noted that this entity demonstrated (1) endophlebitis and calcification of the splenic vein; (2) splenic reticular fibrosis with narrowing of the splenic vein and capsular thickening; (3) presence of cirrhosis of the liver; and (4) finding of
Sutton JP, Yarborough DY, Richards JT. Isolated Splenic Vein Occlusion: Review of Literature and Report of an Additional Case. Arch Surg. 1970;100(5):623–626. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1970.01340230089024
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