Rupture of the urinary bladder is usually the result of either accidental or iatrogenic trauma. When it occurs without any evidence of trauma or instrumentation, it is called "spontaneous rupture." This is quite rare and should be diagnosed only after careful exclusion of trauma by proper history and physical examination.
Two cases of spontaneous rupture of the bladder were seen recently in our hospitals. In one, there was no evidence of any predisposing factor and the other had recurrent episodes of spontaneous rupture secondary to a necrotizing cystitis.
Report of Cases
Case 1.—A 38-year-old white woman, gravida 2, para 2, was admitted to the Urology Service of the Jersey City Medical Center, Jersey City, NJ, in April 1967, with symptoms of lower abdominal pain, hematuria, and diminished urine output of two days' duration. She gave no history of trauma, instrumentation, or urinary symptoms prior to the onset of her symptoms.
Kamat MH, Corgan FJ, Seebode JJ. Spontaneous Rupture of the Bladder. Arch Surg. 1970;100(6):735–737. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1970.01340240073015