Recurrences have developed in seven of 24 long-term survivors following surgical treatment for coarctation of the aorta in infancy. Two of these patients have been operated upon a second time. Findings at operation were similar in both cases. Second operations in infancy should be reserved for those who are symptomatic or who have a persistent significant gradient. The mechanism for these recurrences remains obscure.
Tucker BL, Stanton RE, Lindesmith GG, Stiles QR, Meyer BW, Jones JC. Recurrent Coarctation of the Thoracic Aorta. Arch Surg. 1971;102(6):556–558. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1971.01350060020007