Cholangiographic features of cholangiocarcimona have been illustrated by presenting data from eight patients with this disease which has in the past often required multiple operations to establish diagnosis. These features ranged from subtle distortion of the distal common bile duct to complete occlusion of the duct and its branches. Early lesions showed mucosal irregularity or short circumferential narrowing. One advanced lesion showed a picture of a long narrow area similar to a benign stricture. Recognition of these cholangiographic features at operation will permit earlier diagnosis and definitive therapy.
Reeder DD, Linovitz RJ, Torrance D, Neibling HA, Hirose F, Benfield JR. Cholangiocarcinoma and Operative Cholangiography. Arch Surg. 1971;103(1):25–30. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1971.01350070051011