A series of 17 patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. With the technique described herein, the study was diagnostic in 13 patients. Findings included sclerosing cholangitis, obstruction by stones, benign stricture, and malignant obstruction. There were no complications in the series.
Ozdemir AI, Lancaster JR. Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography. Arch Surg. 1971;103(6):684–687. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1971.01350120044008