Acellular nononcotic solutions of various osmolalities and compositions were tested for their life-sustaining abilities in acute hemorrhagic shock in rabbits where blood was replaced on a volume-for-volume basis. Osmolal and hyperosmolal solutions were more effective in sustaining life than conventionally used lactated Ringer's solution or hypoosmolal solutions. Survival rate of experimental animals was further improved and approached that obtained with reinfusion of autologous blood by the use of synthetic tissue culture type hyperosmolal solutions.
Malinin TI, Wolcott MW. Infusion of Cell-Free Fluids Into Rabbits in Hemorrhagic Shock: Replacement of Blood With Crystalloid Fluids of Various Tonicities. Arch Surg. 1973;106(1):86–89. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1973.01350130084019
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