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March 1974

Hyperdynamic States and the: Physiologic Determinants of Survival and Portal Hypertension

Author Affiliations

Pamela Gallin; Buffalo, NY
From the departments of surgery, State University of New York and Buffalo General Hospital, Buffalo, NY (Dr. Siegel and Ms. Gallin), the Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (Dr. Goldwyn and Mr. Farrell), and Systems Research Institute (IBM), New York (Mr. Friedman).

Arch Surg. 1974;108(3):282-292. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1974.01350270016004

The ability of the cirrhotic patient to withstand the acute stress of variceal hemorrhage or necessary portal decompressive surgery is shown to be related to the adequacy of the cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory interrelationships. Based on a multivariable statistical analysis of 17 variables in 28 patients and 81 controls, three different hyperdynamic cardiovascular states are described in cirrhotic patients: (1) a control hyperdynamic state characterized by an increased cardiac output, without evidence of abnormal peripheral vascular or pulmonary dysfunction; (2) a balanced hyperdynamic response to stress in which a further increase in cardiac output is usually compensated for by an adequate increase in myocardial contractility and oxygen consumption; and (3) an unbalanced hyperdynamic stress state in which there is evidence of severe peripheral vascular abnormality, impaired oxygen extraction, and a tendency to the development of high-output cardiac failure.

Guidelines for the clinical recognition of these states and a rational basis for specific cardiorespiratory therapy are discussed.