Both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors have been shown to be present in most parts of the urinary tract. There is increasing evidence that these play an important part in the mechanism of a number of clinical urological dysfunctions, both idiopathic and those associated with drug treatment, and a number of therapeutic implications are becoming apparent.
Caine M, Raz S. Some Clinical Implications of Adrenergic Receptors in the Urinary Tract. Arch Surg. 1975;110(3):247–250. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1975.01360090017003
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