• A toy squeaker held by the patient in the contralateral hand is used to monitor cerebral circulation during carotid endarterectomy. Regional anesthesia–cervical plexus block–allowed the patient to cooperate and give useful information, especially during the crucial period of test clamping. In a series of 300 cases, during a period of five years, it was instrumental in avoiding brain damage in 6% of the cases.
(Arch Surg 114:103-104, 1979)
Lawrence Spielberger, Herman Turndorf, Alfred Culliford, Anthony Imparato. Hand-Held Toy Squeaker During Carotid Endarterectomy in the Awake Patient. Arch Surg. 1979;114(1):103–104. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1979.01370250105023