• Forty-four surgical mastectomy specimens obtained during resection of carcinoma of the breast were evaluated for involvement of the nipple and/or areola by cancer. Such involvement was found in 11 specimens (25%). Tumor size, relative distance of the tumor from the nipple, and tumor histologic type were investigated and compared with nipple-areolar involvement. The high incidence of nipple involvement found here indicates a definite risk of recurrence for surgical procedures that preserve the nipple.
(Arch Surg 1981;116:1139-1140)
Quinn RH, Barlow JF. Involvement of the Nipple and Areola by Carcinoma of the Breast. Arch Surg. 1981;116(9):1139–1140. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1981.01380210023004