† Standard cervical carotid arteriography was performed on 36 patients and compared with results of noninvasive Doppler arterial imaging and intravenous angiography (IVA). The 72 carotid arteries were anatomically classified by standard angiograms as follows: group 1 (normal), 13 arteries; group 2 (wall disease [50% stenosis]), 14 arteries; group 3 (moderate stenosis [50% to 75% stenosis]) 12 arteries; group 4 (severe stenosis [> 75%]), 15 arteries; and group 5 (complete occlusion), 18 arteries.
(Arch Surg 1982;117:419-421)
Turnipseed WD, Sackett JF, Strother CM, Crummy AB, Mistretta CA. A Comparison of Standard Cerebral Arteriography With Noninvasive Doppler Imaging and Intravenous Angiography. Arch Surg. 1982;117(4):419–421. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1982.01380280019005
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