• The diagnosis of venous insufficiency and hypertension was established in 53 patients using standard diagnostic methods including ascending and descending venography, venous pressure measurements, and photoplethysmography. Autogenous vein valve transplant, which is gaining acceptance as a treatment for this condition, was employed in this group of patients to relieve venous valvular insufficiency. Biopsy specimens of the gastrocnemius muscle were obtained before surgery in all 53 patients and studied pathologically. Three types of morphologic injury were encountered, suggesting that disuse, denervation, and ischemia may each be partially responsible for damage in skeletal muscle subjected to venous insufficiency and hypertension. Skeletal muscle injury probably explains the preoperative elevations of serum creatine kinase levels in many of our patients and may account for the failure of venous pressures to return to normal levels following surgery.
(Arch Surg 1984;119:929-931)
Taheri SA, Heffner R, Williams J, Lazar L, Elias S. Muscle Changes in Venous Insufficiency. Arch Surg. 1984;119(8):929–931. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1984.01390200047011