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The lives of three extraordinary surgeons who were among the earliest women in American surgery are chronicled herein. No written account can ever accurately reflect the hardships they suffered, or provide a true measure of their courage. Despite the support of colleagues, friends, and family, each crossed the new frontiers alone, in the face of great adversity. They survived, they endured, and ultimately they triumphed. What each has given back to her chosen profession has repaid, many times over, the training often reluctantly given. What each has conferred to those who come after is the conviction that it can be done and the strength to follow.
(Arch Surg. 1993;128:643-646)
Kemeny MM. Jonasson, Braunwald, and Morani: Three Firsts in American Surgery. Arch Surg. 1993;128(6):643–646. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1993.01420180041008
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