The article "Surgery in Japan" by Inoue,1 published in the October issue of the Archives, was particularly interesting to me because I am a graduate from a medical school in Japan and have experienced postgraduate surgical training in both Japan and the United States. Inoue well summarized the current status of surgical systems, education, health care, and other activities in Japan in this special article. Learning about surgery in other countries will help one to better understand the strong and weak points of surgery in one's own country.
As Inoue1 mentioned, the surgical training or educational system in Japan seems to be behind that in the United States in terms of consistently creating surgeons with a high level of competency. This is mainly caused by a lack of a surgical training system such as the one in the United States that requires 5 years of residency to become