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November 1995

Surgical Anatomy

Arch Surg. 1995;130(11):1216. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1995.01430110074013

The superior vena cava ends in the right atrium at the 3rd costal cartilage. The inferior vena cava pierces the diaphragm at the level of the xiphisternal joint, and after a course of half an inch enters the right atrium, at the level of the 6th costal cartilage.

1. Grant JCB. A Method of Anatomy: Descriptive and Deductive. 5th ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins Co; 1952:544.