The superior vena cava ends in the right atrium at the 3rd costal cartilage. The inferior vena cava pierces the diaphragm at the level of the xiphisternal joint, and after a course of half an inch enters the right atrium, at the level of the 6th costal cartilage.
1. Grant JCB. A Method of Anatomy: Descriptive and Deductive. 5th ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins Co; 1952:544.
Surgical Anatomy. Arch Surg. 1995;130(11):1216. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1995.01430110074013
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