The expenditure on health care reached 7.8% of the gross domestic product in Greece in 1991. Almost 9000 specialized surgeons in 11 recognized specialties provide services to more than 10 million people living in Greece and 2 million visitors annually. Medical studies comprise a 6-year course of 5000 to 5500 teaching hours in 7 medical schools and are free. Organizational reform of the health care system is vital and long overdue to move the system into the 21st century. The quality of surgical services provided is high by international standards; cardiac surgery, organ transplantation, surgical oncology, and anesthesiology are some areas of excellence. In addition, Greece has a good record in medical technology and instrumentation. Research activities cover a range of subjects, and the number of clinical medicine articles from Greece that appear in peer-reviewed journals compares favorably with other larger countries. Reforms in the postgraduate training system and ongoing education are necessary. Arch Surg. 1997;132:224-231
Papadimitriou JD, Tsiftsis DA, Prachalias AA, Papadimitriou KJ. Surgery in Greece. Arch Surg. 1997;132(3):224–231. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1997.01430270010001
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