The evolution and development of surgery in Israel reflects the influence of its dramatic historical events. The immigration of surgeons, particularly since the fourth decade of the 20th century, highly contributed to the framework of modern surgery. Medical education occurs at 4 medical schools, in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Haifa, and Beer Sheva, and postgraduate surgical training takes place in all public hospitals, most of which are university hospitals or have university-affiliated departments, and is controlled by the Scientific Council of the Israel Medical Association (Tel Aviv). Health care is provided by 4 health insurance funds and has been recently influenced by the National Health Insurance Bill and the Bill of Patient's Rights. Surgical standards are high and similar to the very best of Western countries. The geographical location of Israel in the Middle East, surrounded by hostile Arab countries, has dramatically influenced the development of Israeli surgery. The practice of surgery ranges from full-time service in state and insurance-funded mostly academic hospitals, to private part-time clinics for wealthy and insured patients. Surgical training occurs only in departments accredited by the Scientific Council, which are mostly affiliated with the 4 medical schools. A surgical residency in Israel usually requires 6 years, and its guidelines and regulations are elaborated and recommended by the Israel Surgical Society and controlled by the Scientific Council. Most Israeli surgeons were trained in Israeli hospitals, but a substantial number of surgeons immigrated to the country, especially from eastern Europe. Arch Surg. 1997;132:465-470
Orda R, Durst A, Antebi E, Krausz M, Klausner JM. Surgery in Israel. Arch Surg. 1997;132(5):465–470. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1997.01430290011001
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