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Angelini L, Eleuteri E, Coppola M. Surgery in Italy. Arch Surg. 2001;136(11):1318–1322. doi:10.1001/archsurg.136.11.1318
During the past 15 years, surgery in Italy has undergone significant developments in health care services at the teaching and organizational levels. In 1987, the new teaching regulations of medical and surgical schools came into force with the introduction of integrated courses that converge into educational and training areas with precise objectives. For more than a decade, postgraduate schools have had a common guideline throughout the European community—becoming real "residencies." Surgical activity is provided by university hospital facilities and hospitals with a business administration that is completely autonomous as far as organization, income, management, technique, and accounts are concerned. Research guidelines for future developments are mainly addressed toward optimization of organization and use of the most recent technology. The widespread application of day surgery and video-assisted surgery substantiates this evolution of surgery in Italy.
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