Implementing 1-Dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection | Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology | JAMA Surgery | JAMA Network
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Original Article
November 1, 2006

Implementing 1-Dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Infection Control Department, Hospital S[[atilde]]o Francisco, Ribeir[[atilde]]o Preto, S[[atilde]]o Paulo, Brazil (Drs Fonseca, Nascimento, and de Andrade and Mss Kunzle and Junqueira); and Department of Infectious Diseases and Infection Control Department, Hospital das Clinicas, University of S[[atilde]]o Paulo (Dr Levin).

Arch Surg. 2006;141(11):1109-1113. doi:10.1001/archsurg.141.11.1109

Hypothesis  Replacing a 24-hour regimen with a 1-dose antibiotic prophylaxis for elective surgery would not increase rates of surgical site infection and would decrease costs.

Design and Setting  Before-after trial in a tertiary, private general hospital in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Patients  Surgery was performed on 6140 consecutive patients from February 2002 through October 2002 (period 1) and 6159 consecutive patients from December 2002 through August 2003 (period 2). Studied surgeries included orthopedic, gastrointestinal, urology, vascular, lung, head and neck, heart, gynecologic, oncology, colon, neurologic, and pediatric surgeries. The study excluded patients with infection at the time of surgery.

Intervention  Decreasing the 24-hour prophylactic antibiotic regimen to 1-dose antibiotic prophylaxis.

Main Outcome Measures  Surgical site infections in both periods measured by in-hospital surveillance and postdischarge surveillance; compliance with 1-dose prophylaxis; and costs with cephazolin.

Results  We followed up 12 299 patients during their hospital stay; postdischarge surveillance increased significantly from 2717 patients (44%) to 3066 patients (50%, P<.001). One-dose prophylaxis was correctly followed in 6123 patients (99% compliance).The rate of surgical site infection did not change in either period (2% and 2.1% respectively, P = .67). The number of cephazolin vials purchased monthly decreased from 1259 to 467 with a corresponding monthly savings of $1980.

Conclusions  One-dose antibiotic prophylaxis did not lead to an increase in rates of surgical site infection and brought a monthly savings of $1980 considering cephazolin alone. High compliance to 1-dose prophylaxis was achieved through an educational intervention encouraged by the hospital director and administrative measures that reduced access to extra doses.