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Original Article
December 1, 2006

Povidone-Iodine vs Sodium Hypochlorite Enema for Mechanical Preparation Before Elective Open Colonic or Rectal Resection With Primary Anastomosis: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Surgical Unit, H[[ocirc]]pital Louis Mourier (Assistance Publique[[ndash]]H[[ocirc]]pitaux de Paris), Colombes (Drs Valverde, Msika, Kianmanesh, Hay, Couchard, and Flamant), Surgical Unit, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal, Poissy (Dr Fingerhut), and Surgical Unit, H[[ocirc]]pital Henri Mondor (Assistance Publique[[ndash]]H[[ocirc]]pitaux de Paris), Cr[[eacute]]teil (Dr Fagniez), France.

Arch Surg. 2006;141(12):1168-1174. doi:10.1001/archsurg.141.12.1168

Hypothesis  The anti-infective actions of povidone-iodine (PVI) and sodium hypochlorite enemas are different.

Design  Prospective, randomized, single-blind study.

Setting  Multicenter.

Patients  Five hundred seventeen consecutive patients with colorectal carcinoma or sigmoid diverticular disease undergoing elective open colorectal resection, followed by primary anastomosis.

Intervention  All patients received senna (1-2 packages diluted in a glass of water) at 6 PM the evening before surgery. Patients were administered two 2-L aqueous enemas of 5% PVI (n = 277) or 0.3% sodium hypochlorite (n = 240) at 9 PM the evening before surgery and at 3 hours before operation. Intravenous ceftriaxone sodium (1 g) and metronidazole (1 g) were administered at anesthetic induction.

Main Outcome Measure  Rate of patients with 1 infective parietoabdominal complication or more.

Results  The percentages of patients with 1 infective parietoabdominal complication or more did not differ between the 2 groups (13.7% in the PVI-treated group vs 15.0% in the sodium hypochlorite–treated group). Tolerance was better in the PVI-treated group than in the sodium hypochlorite–treated group (79.4% vs 67.9%), with fewer patients experiencing abdominal pain (13.0% vs 24.6%) or discontinuing their preparation (3.0% vs 9.0%) (P=.02 for all). There were more patients with malaise in the PVI-treated group than in the sodium hypochlorite–treated group (9.1% vs 4.9%, P<.05). Three patients in the sodium hypochlorite–treated group had necrotic ulcerative colitis.

Conclusion  When antiseptic enemas are chosen for mechanical preparation before colorectal surgery, PVI should be preferred over sodium hypochlorite because of better tolerance and avoidance of necrotic ulcerative colitis.