[Skip to Content]
Sign In
Individual Sign In
Create an Account
Institutional Sign In
OpenAthens Shibboleth
[Skip to Content Landing]
Article
June 1969

Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats: A Method of Therapeutic Bioassay

Author Affiliations

St. Louis
From the Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis.

Arch Surg. 1969;98(6):685-693. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1969.01340120033002
Abstract

This work presents a method of inducing hemorrhagic shock in the rat similar to the Wiggers type of controlled hypotension produced by hemorrhage in dogs. Studying hemorrhagic shock in the rat has the following advantages:

  1. The reproducibility of experiments should be greater in rats of a pure inbred strain than in the dogs of mixed pedigree available in most laboratories.

  2. The time required to perform similar hemorrhagic shock experiments is shorter in the rat than in the dog.

  3. Experiments in a given number of rats are less expensive than in the same number of dogs.

The canine hemorrhagic shock model used in this laboratory1 is associated with mortality of 50% of the dogs when all the blood removed to produce the hypotension is returned to the circulation at the end of the period of controlled hypotension. In other words, termination of the hemorrhagic shock by giving back the blood provides

References
1.
Dillon, J., et al:  A Bioassay of Treatment of Hemorrhagic Shock ,  Arch Surg 93:537-566 ( (Oct) ) 1966.Crossref
2.
Wijnans, M.:  The Cause of Death of Rats in Hemorrhagic Normovalemic Shock ,  Acta Physiol Pharmacol Neerl 12:83-85 ( (Jan) ) 1963.
3.
Dillon, J., et al:  The Treatment of Hemorrhagic Shock ,  Surg Gynec Obstet 122:967-978 ( (May) ) 1966.
4.
Moyer, C.A., and Butcher, H.R., Jr.:  Burns, Shock and Plasma Volume , St. Louis: The C. V. Mosby Co., 1967.
5.
Sayers, M.A.; Sayers, G.; and Long, C.N.H.:  The Standardization of Hemorrhagic Shock in the Rat: Observations on the Effects of Transfusion of Whole Blood and Some Blood Substitutes ,  Amer J Physiol 147:155-164 ( (Sept) ) 1946.
6.
Strawitz, J.G., et al:  Irreversible Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats: Method and Critical Bleeding Volume ,  Amer J Physiol 200:257-260 ( (Feb) ) 1961.
7.
Whigham, H., and Weil, M.H.:  A Model for the Study of Hemorrhagic Shock in the Rat: Development of the Method ,  J Appl Physiol 21:1860-1863 ( (Nov) ) 1966.
8.
Engel, F.L.; Winton, M.G.; and Long, C.N.H.:  The Metabolism of Amino Acids and Carbohydrates During Hemorrhagic Shock in the Rat ,  J Exp Med 77:397-410 ( (May) ) 1943.Crossref
9.
Zweifach, B.W.; Lomerstein, B.E.; and Chambers, R.:  Response of Blood Capillaries to Acute Hemorrhage in the Rat ,  Amer J Physiol 142:80-93 ( (Aug) ) 1944.
10.
Engel, F.L., and Hewson, K.:  Fatty Acid and Ketone Metabolism During Hemorrhage and Shock in the Rat ,  Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 83:608-611 ( (July) ) 1953.Crossref
11.
Hershey, S.G.; Zweifach, B.W.; and Antopol, W.:  Factors Associated With Protection Against Experimental Shock ,  Anesthesiology 12:265-276 ( (March) ) 1956.Crossref
12.
McNulty, W.P., Jr., and Linares, R.:  Hemorrhagic Shock of Germfree Rats ,  Amer J Physiol 198:141-144 ( (Jan) ) 1960.
13.
Baratz, R.A., and Ingraham, R.C.:  Capillary Permeability During Hemorrhagic Shock in the Rat ,  Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 89:642-644 ( (Aug) -Sept) 1955.Crossref
14.
Vineyard, G.C., et al:  Effect of Hydroxyethyl Starch on Plasma Volume and Hematocrit Following Hemorrhagic Shock in Dogs: Comparison With Dextran, Plasma and Ringer's ,  Ann Surg 166:891-899 ( (Nov) ) 1966.Crossref
×